Programme Planning and Evaluation of Extension Programme.

(Part 2, Transfer of Technology for Livestock Development, VAHEE) 

Topic: Programme Planning- principles, objectives and steps. Evaluation of Extension Programme, constraints in the adoption of Scientific Animal Husbandry Practices. Role of Extension Agents. (From Unit 4, VAHEE) *VAHEE- Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education.

Programme Planning and Evaluation of Extension Programme

by Dr. Debasish Saha, Department of VAHEE, F/O-VAS, of WBUAFS.

Transfer of Technology for Livestock Development.

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Programme Planning 

The starting of any systemic attempt to promote under development is to prepare useful programme based on human as well as social needs. Programme planning is also a procedure of working with the people in an effort to recognized problems and to determine possible solution or goals. 

Before going into the details of the programme planning process, let us understand the meaning of a terms like programme, plan, and programme planning in the context of social (may be rural or urban) development through Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education.
  • Programme is a statement of situations, objectives, problems and solutions. It is relatively permanent but requires constant revision. 
  • Plan is a predetermined course of action. Plans may be tailored to specific projects, or they may be established as standing plans (ex. Five Year Plans) for future actions. Planning not only involves predetermining a course of action to be taken, but also includes mentally searching for possibilities of future problems that might appear. 
  • Programme planning is a decision making process involving critical analysis of the existing situation and the problems, evaluation of the various alternatives to solve these problems and the selection of the relevant ones, giving necessary priorities based upon local needs and resources by the cooperative efforts of the people both official and non-official with a view to facilitate the individual, community growth and development. 
  • Project is a specification of work to be done or procedure to be followed in order to accomplish a particular objective. 
  • Development Programme is a statement of situation, objectives, problems, strategies and solution to development problems and issues. The development programme formulated for the urban may be different from that of the rural areas. Development programme varies from time to time depending on the issues and problems cropped up at that particular period. 
  • Situation is a statement of affairs that includes the cultural , social, economic and physical conditions in which a particular group of people find themselves at a given period of time. 
  • Aims are generalized and broad statement of directions with respect to given activities. 
  • Objectives are expression of ends towards which our efforts are directed. The dictionary meaning of objective is ‘something that one’s efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish’. 
  • Goal is the distance in any given direction one expects to o during a given period of time. 
  • Problem is an issue or obstacle which make it difficult to achieve a desired goal, objective or purpose. It refers to a situation, condition, or issue that is yet unresolved. 
  • Plan of work is an outline of activities so arranged as to enable efficient execution of the programme. It is a statement of activities to be undertaken by an individual, a group of people or an organization, within a definitely stated time, to carry out the recommendations in the programme. The plan of work indicates - what is to be done?/ who is to do it?/ how it is to be done? when it is to be done? who are to be served or reached? and how the results will be measured?. 
  • Calendar of work is a plan of activities to be undertaken in a particular time sequence.

Objectives of having a Programme

  1. To ensure careful consideration of what is to be done and why. 
  2. To furnish a guide (criteria) against which to judge all new proposals. 
  3. To establish objectives towards which progress can be measured and evaluated. 
  4. To have a means of choosing the important (deep rooted) from incidental (minor, less important) problems and the permanent from the temporary changes. 
  5. To develop a common understanding about the means and ends between various functionaries and organization. 
  6. To ensure continuity during changes in personnel. vii) To help develop leadership. 
  7. To avoid waste of time and money and promote efficiency. ix) To justify expenditure and to ensure flow of funds. 
  8. To have a written form of statement for public use.

Principles of Extension Programme Planning 

  • Extension Programmes should be based on an analysis of the past experiences, present situation and future needs. For programme determination adequate information about the people and their situation have to be collected. The present situation is to be analyzed and interpreted on the basis of past experiences, by taking local people into confidence. This shall help in arriving at the future needs. 
  • Extension programmes should have clear and significant objectives, which could satisfy important needs of the people. The ultimate objective of programme building is to satisfy the needs of the people. For this purpose, significant objectives pertaining to important needs of the people should be selected and clearly stated. The emphasis shall be on what is attainable rather than on what is ideal, although one should not lose sight of the later. 
  • Extension programmes should fix up priority on the basis of available resources and time. The rural people, particularly in the developing countries, have a multitude of problems. All problems cannot be taken up at a time for solution, because of the limitations of trained personnel, availability of funds, facilities and other resources. Time is also a limiting factor as both the people and the funding agencies cannot wait for an indefinite period of time to get the results. Considering all these parameters, it is essential to fix up priorities in the programme. 
  • Extension programmes should clearly indicate the availability and utilization of resources. All extension programmes should clearly state where from the funds, facilities, supplies and the needed personnel shall be made available and how these shall be utilized. This shall make the programme practical and workable. 
  • Extension programme should have a general agreement at various levels. Programmes prepared at various levels such as village, district, state and national levels should conform to each other and shall not work at cross purposes. Similarly, extension programmes of a particular department should not be in conflict or contradiction with the extension programme of another department. 
  • Extension programme should involve people at the local level. Extension programmes are implemented at the local level. Local people should, therefore, be involved all through, from programme formation to programme implementation. 
  • Extension programmes should involve relevant institutions and organizations. Extension programmes cannot be implemented in isolation. It requires the support of many institutions and organizations. The programme should broadly indicate the institutions and organizations to be involved and how they shall contribute in attaining the programme objectives. 
  • Extension programme should have definite plan of work. The plan of work may be separately drawn up or incorporated in the programme. The programme should broadly indicate how it will be executed. Unless the plan of work is drawn up, the programme remains a theoretical exercise. 
  • Extension programmes should provide for evaluation of results and reconsideration of the programme. Extension programme is not a static outline of activities. The programme should make provision for periodical monitoring and evaluation of results to judge its progress. On the basis of the findings of evaluation, the programme should be suitably modified to facilitate its reaching the objective within the stipulated period of time. 
  • Extension programmes should provide equitable distribution of benefits amongst the members of the community. It has been found that, in a community generally the resource rich persons benefit more in comparison to the resource poor, from the implementation of extension programmes. The gap between rich and poor is getting widened. As this may generate social disparity and social tensions, the planning of extension programmes should give adequate emphasis on the weaker sections of the community.

Steps in Extension Programme Planning 

The preparation, execution & evaluation of extension programme involves the following steps 
  • Collection of facts
  • Analysis of situation 
  • Identification of problems 
  • Determination of objectives and goals 
  • Developing plan of work and calender of operations 
  • Following through plan of work and calender of operations 
  • Evaluation of progress 
  • Reconsideration and revision of the programme

Collection of Facts

It is the starting point of programme planning process. Pertinent data may be collected from the available records and by survey of the area.
Information relating to the people, their enterprises, levels of technology, facilities and constraints, values etc. relevant to programme building may be collected. 

Information may also be collected from Panchayats, Cooperatives and other organizations in the area.

Analysis of Situation

The data and information collected are then analyzed in an unbiased way, keeping in view the feelings expressed by the client system. This shall help in understanding the situation in its proper perspective.
The data must include purpose of rearing livestock, herd size, milk production, feeding and management practices etc.

Identification of Problems

A correct analysis and interpretation of the data shall help in identifying the problems. There may be many problems, but only the urgent and significant ones, which could be solved within the available resources and within the limits of time, should be selected. 

Simple problems with high rate of success may be taken up first to gain confidence of the livestock farmers. 

Selection of a large number of problems, which cannot be properly managed, may lead to a failure of the programme and generate frustration among the people.

Determination of Objectives and Goals 

The objectives are set forth on the basis of the significant needs identified.  The objectives should be direct and stated in clear terms. 

To make the objectives realistic and actionable, there is need to state them in terms of specific goals. 

 In the determination of goals it may be necessary to again go through the data and information analyzed, to find out what could actually be done in the existing situation, with the available resources and time, which will be compatible and with which the people shall cooperate. 

It is necessary to discuss with the local people and local institutions, which shall also legitimize the programme planning process.

Developing Plan of Work and Calender of Operation

Plan of work 

  • The plan of work should be in written form and shall indicate who shall do what job i.e. what the change agent system (extension) and the client system (livestock farmers) shall do; which institutions, organizations, service departments shall be involved; what will be the financial requirement and how it shall be met; what arrangements shall be made for marketing of the produce, training of the farmers and so on. 
  • The plan should have all the essential details and no important point should be left out. 

Calender of work 

  • The calendar of operations shall be prepared on the basis of the plan of work and shall specify when a particular work shall be done, preferably mentioning date and time; how much quantity of different inputs, including credit shall be required and when these must be made available; when, where and for how many days the farmers and farm women shall be trained, who are the specialists to be involved in training and preparing the handouts, when the publications shall be ready for distribution etc. 
  • That is, the calendar of operations shall specifically state how and when all the significant activities shall be performed. This should be at least for one season or for a period of one year. In that case, they may be termed as ‘seasonal plan’ or ‘annual plan’.

Following Through Plan of Work and Calender of Operations 

Training of participants, communication of information, conducting method demonstrations, making regular visits and monitoring are some of the important functions the extension agent shall perform at this stage. 

The work shall include solving unforeseen problems and taking corrective steps where needed. 

The performance of the extension agent and the organizational support received at this state may make the difference between success or failure of a programme. 

Obtaining feedback information as to what is happening to the farmers after introduction of new technology is extremely important at this stage.

Evaluation of Progress 

Evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. 

All programmes must have an in-built system of evaluation to know how well the work is done. 

It should be a continuous process not only to measure the end result but also to ensure that all the steps are correctly followed. 

Evaluation may be formal or informal, depending on the importance of the programme and also on the availability of trained manpower, funds, facilities and time.

Reconsideration and Revision of the Programme

On the basis of the results of evaluation, the programme should be reconsidered, and revised if needed. 

The reconsideration should be done not only with the participants; but also with the scientists, administrators in extension organizations and local bodies like panchayats etc. 

Reconsideration shall help in making necessary corrections and modifications in the programme. 

In reconsideration, emphasis should be on the removal of technical defects if any, and how to obtain more cooperation and involvement of the participants and various organizations. The purpose of such an exercise is to make the extension programme more effective by removing the defects.

Evaluation of Extension Programme

EVALUATION: Meaning & Scope

“Evaluation” in its broadest sense means judging the value of something. It may be informal or formal. 

Formal evaluation may be defined as a process of systematic appraisal by which we determine the worth, value or meaning of something. 

This something in extension may be a programme or part of programme, a method used in carrying on extension work, or a situation such as a community, a Block or even a larger area. 

The purpose of evaluation is to facilitate effective decision making without jumping to conclusions. 

Extension evaluation is the process of determining how well the desired behavioral changes have taken place or are taking place as a result of extension educational effort.

Important Elements of Evaluation Process 

The three important elements in the evaluation process are 

  1. Observations or collecting some information. 
  2. Applying some standards or criteria to our observation. 
  3. Finally, forming some judgment, drawing some conclusions or making some decisions

Steps Involved in an Evaluation Plan 

1. Need for the evaluation 

  • What extension project, problem, activity, job, method or situation do you want to evaluate?
  • Why evaluate it? 
  • How can the results of the evaluation be used in your extension work? 

2. Purpose of the evaluation 

  • Is the evaluation, i. an analysis of the situation, or ii. An evaluation of teaching objectives? 
  • What questions should be answered by the evaluation 

3. Questions to be answered by the evaluation 

  • If analysis of a situation, clarify the kinds of information needed to answer the question 
  • If an evaluation of teaching, clarify the teaching objectives 

     Analyze the teaching plan 

  • Review what has been taught o How it was taught, and to whom 
  • Changes in behaviour expected as a result of the teaching 

4. Sources of the information 

  • People – farmers, farm women, local leaders, club members, nonmembers, extension workers etc. 
  • Recorded information – reports, census etc. 

5. Collecting the information 

  • How? Interviews, mailed questionnaires, observations, etc. 
  • By whom? Person making the evaluation, extension personnel, local leaders etc. 
6. Selecting or constructing a record form 

  • Kind of form: questionnaires, interview forms, tests, observation sheets, rating scales, check lists, score cards etc. 
  • Data about: i) The situation to be studied ii) Evidence or progress towards the teaching objectives 

7. Analysis and tabulation of the data for use 

  • Classification and sorting of data to answer questions in step 2b 
  • Work tables needed 
  • Coding of free answer questions 
  • Method of tabulation 
  • Sorts and sub sorts to bring out relationships 

 8. Interpreting, reporting and applying the findings 

  • Preparation of tables, charts and graphs 
  • Summary of findings 
  • Applications to extension work

Six Keys to Evaluating Extension Work

1. Statement of objectives 

  • State the objectives of an activity to be evaluated in terms of behaviour changes in the people who are to do the learning. 
  • e.g. Dairy farmers to learn full hand milking of cow 

2. Source of evidence 

  • Only those people whom you try to reach can provide proof of success or failure. 
  • e.g. Those dairy farmers who attended the full hand milking demonstration 

3. Representative sample 

  • Those persons who actually provide the evidence of success must be representative of all whom you tried to approach. 
  • e.g. Every 'n' th name from the list of dairy farmers who attended the full hand milking demonstration meeting. 

4. Appropriate methods 

  • The methods of obtaining evidence must be appropriate to the kinds of information being collected.
  • e.g. Recorded observation of the dairy farmers on how he milk his cow before and after the full hand milking demonstration. 

5. Reliable questions 

  • Word questions carefully so as to obtain reliable, unbiased data 
  • e.g. When asking questions about a field visit during a dairy training programme; Did you see any new methods of feeding dairy animals? 

6. Plan to use results 

  • Decide how you will analyze and use your evaluation results before evaluation is done. o Is the percentage of adoption of a practice high, low, expected or unexpected? 
  • What the extension programme have done or not done to make it high, or keep it so low? 
  • What other factors are related to it? How should the extension methods or programmes be changed to bring about a different kind or different amount of change?

Problem in Implementing Animal Husbandry Extension Programmes 

  • Lack of organised institutional set up to deal exclusively for animal husbandry programmes 
  • Lack of sufficient man power 
  • Lack of funds 
  • Lack of co-ordination and co-operation among the line departments 
  • Macro level planning and implementation 
  • Top down model of programme implementation 
  • More emphasis on providing health care than on production 
  • Insufficient market infrastructure to market the produce 
  • Unorganised production patterns 
  • Sporadic implementation

Identification of Constraints in Adoption of Scientific Animal Husbandry Practices 

There are wide range of factors influencing adoption and performance of new / existing technologies at the farmers' field. These could be broadly categorized under following heads: 

1. Non-transferable component of technology 

Technology can be regarded as a combination of physical capital and technical knowledge/human capital. The simple purchase of physical capital or machine part of the technology is not a technology adoption or transfer. Equally important is to gain knowledge and expertise. And this is considered as nontransferable component of the technology. In animal husbandry, the expertise to identify disease cannot be given until and unless the farmer works and gain experience under the supervision of the scientist. The other reason for yield gap could be use of modern machines and tools in the research stations for accuracy. 

2. Environmental factors 

The environmental factors are mainly responsible for region-to region performance of the technology. The factors like heat, cold, frost, soil temperature, rainfall and sunshine play an important role in the growth and yield of the animals as well as fodder crops. 

3. Physical and biological constraints 

The physical constraints mean lack of infrastructural facilities etc. On the other hand, biological constraints include attack of micro-organisms and parasitic infestation. All these factors are location specific and affect adversely on the adoption of certain technologies while the technology developed to remove these constraints will be accepted readily. 

4. Socio-organization constraints 

It has been observed that the farmers' social status also influence the adoption of technology including both physical and knowledge aspects. These factors could be age, education, infrastructure, and member of local organization, contact with extension agencies, media participation and extension participation. 

5. Techno-economic constraints 

These constraints are related with technical facilities and economic power of a farmer. A poor farmer always hesitates to adopt new technology unless no cost is involved. These constraints are size of the farm, farm assets, finance / credit availability, expected yield and expected prices. 

6. Farmers’ objective 

A farmer’s objective in adopting a particular technology may not always be profit maximization. He may be interested to minimize losses and risk, save labor and improve quality. A technology giving the highest profit but evolve high risk will not be adopted by the farmer whose objective is to minimize risk. 

7. Extension gap 

Extension gap is another constraint in transfer and adoption of technology among farmers. It maybe due to lack of education among farmers or non-adoption of proper extension method like demonstration and farm trials. 

8. Technology deficiencies 

Sometimes technologies are developed for the sake of knowledge without giving much consideration to actual problems of the farmers and farmers’ requirements in view. It requires identifying specific factors among abovementioned broad constraints effecting technology adoption and yield gap through analysis. 

The information on factors are collected and supplemented by on-farm trials and on-farm,on-station research and field surveys. A wide range of techniques has been employed to analyze constraints-such as simple tabular analysis, analysis of variance, whole farm budgeting, multivariate analysis, etc. These techniques are applied either separately or sometimes in combination.

Constraints in Adoption of Scientific Animal Husbandry Practices

  • High cost of concentrate feed/ feed ingredients 
  • High cost of dry fodder 
  • High cost of green fodder 
  • Poor quality of concentrate feed 
  • Low availability of green fodder 
  • Low availability of dry fodder 
  • Distant location of veterinary dispensary for treatment/ A.I. etc., 
  • High cost of veterinary aid and service 
  • Lack of institutional credit facility 
  • Complexity in the procedure for obtaining loans 
  • Non-availability of family labour 
  • Poor conception rate through A. I. 
  • High incidence of repeat breeding in crossbred cows 
  • Inadequate market infrastructure for livestock and livestock products 
  • Non-remunerative price offered for livestock products 
  • Lack of knowledge about scientific animal husbandry practices 
  • Lack of education and training facility on scientific animal husbandry practices


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Programme Planning and Evaluation of Extension Programme.